M4.3-R4: INTRODUCTION TO ICT RESOURCES  

DURATION: 03 Hours                                                             MAXIMUM MARKS: 100

 

PART ONE

Answer all the questions

 

  1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein. (1×10)

 

1.1 _________Is a device which is used to connect two different networks.

(A) Repeater

(B) Gateway

(C) Bridge

(D) none of the above

 

1.2  _______Is known as loopback address.

(A)200.200.1.1

(B)10.10.1.1

(C)224.1.1.1

(D)127.0.0.1

 

1.3 _______Is a bootstrap program in window.

(A)Liboot

(B)GRUB

(C)LIGR

(D)NTLDR

 

1.4 Number of usable host with address 192.168.128.0/22

(A)10

(B)100

(C)1000

(D)1022

 

1.5 Ethernet uses_______ method to access medium

(A)CSMA/CD

(B)CSMA/CA

(C)CSMA/AC

(D)CSMA/DC

 

1.6 _______topology is highly expensive.

(A)Star

(B)Tree

(C)Fully Mesh

(D)Common Bus

 

1.7 OSI model consists of_______ number of layers .

(A)four

(B)five

(C)six

(D)seven

 

1.8 _______Memory is faster than RAM.

(A)Cache

(B)Pen Drive

(C)HDD

(D)EPROM

 

1.9 _______Is used to compress file and folders.

(A)LinZip

(B)WinZip

(C)RER

(D)COMPRESS

 

1.10 _______Key is used to take snapshot on desktop screen.

(A)Alt + Print Screen

(B)Enter + Print Screen

(C)F1+ Print Screen

(D) Print Screen

 

  1. Each statement below is either TRUE or FALSE. Choose the most appropriate one and enter your choice in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein.

 

  • MBR is known as boot partition. TRUE
  • Formatting drive will arrange data in hard disk drive. FALSE
  • PCI Slot is available in computer to install graphic card. TRUE
  • Fiber optic cable reduces crosstalk effect. TRUE
  • Central point of failure is disadvantage of star topology. TRUE
  • Steps of creation of user and groups are signal in Linux operating TRUE
  • Defragmentation of hard disk will erase content of drive. FALSE
  • Wireless network uses radio waves to transmit signals. TRUE
  • NFS is a file sharing Protocol in Windows operating system. FALSE

2.10 Switch takes decision based on MAC address. TRUE

 

  1. Match words and phrases in column X with the closest related meaning/ word(s)/phrase(s) in column Y. Enter your selection in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein. (1×10)

X

Y

3.1

Physical address

A.

Collision free topology

3.2

Reduction of file size

B.

OSI

3.3

Standard creation committee for communication

C.

EEPROM

3.4

Logical address

D.

ROM

3.5

Programmable storage

E.

IP address

3.6

A type of printer

F.

cost effective topology

3.7

Provides internet

G.

Ping command

3.8

Mesh topology

H.

Pkzip

3.9

Bus topology

I.

ISP

3.10

Command to test network

J.

IP config command

 

 

K.

MAC address

 

 

L.

LaserJet

 

 

M.

ISO

 

3.1

K

3.2

H

3.3

 M

3.4

E

3.5

D

3.6

L

3.7

I

3.8

A

3.9

F

3.10

G

 

  1. Each statement below has a blank space to fit one of the word(s) or phrase(s) in the list below. Choose

the most appropriate option, enter your choice in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question

paper, following instructions therein.

 

A.

Operating system

B.

Scan disk

C.

Circuit

D.

Path

E.

UDP

F.

Low level

G.

Dynamic link library

H.

High level

I.

Packet

J.

ROM BIOS

K.

Recycle bin

L.

HDD

M.

Disk cleanup

 

 

 

 

 

  • The DLL extension stands for ___G
  • __E_____Is a connectionless protocol.
  • In___C______ Switching, dedicated path is established before data is transferred.
  • ____J___Is a physical part of PC that keeps track of hardware resources on the system.
  • Deleted files can be retrieved from _____K
  • _____B_____Is a utility that removes unnecessary files from a slow running hard drive.
  • ____M_______Is a utility program which searches for an map file blocks of HDD.
  • ____J______Identify a file location in HDD.
  • _____A______Act as an interface between user and hardware.

4.10 _____H_________Formatting reformat file system of HDD.

 

 

 

 

 

PART TWO

Answer all the questions

 

  1. (A) List down various components of computer. what safety precaution must be taken while assembling parts of computer? 

Ans: A computer system consists of both hardware and information stored on hardware. Information stored on computer hardware is often called software.

The hardware components of a computer system are the electronic and mechanical parts.

The software components of a computer system are the data and the computer programs.

The major hardware components of a computer system are:

  • Processor
  • Main memory
  • Secondary memory
  • Input devices
  • Output devices

For typical desktop computers, the processor, main memory, secondary memory, power supply, and supporting hardware are housed in a metal case. Many of the components are connected to the main circuit board of the computer, called the motherboard. The power supply supplies power for most of the components. Various input devices (such as the keyboard) and output devices (such as the monitor) are attached through connectors at the rear of the case.

When installing or removing computer hardware and other peripherals :

  1. Wear proper apparel. Avoid acrylic or wool sweaterswhen working with electronic parts. Do not wear loose fitting clothing, rings, bracelets etc.
  2. Unplug all computer equipmentand peripherals before opening any cases.
  3. Keep your work area clean, organized and well lit. It’s your workstation – keep it tidy.
  4. Check for damaged parts. Notify your teacher in case anything is wrong.
  5. Do not force components into computer ports. Working with computer technology requires more brain power than muscle power. Ask for help as needed.
  6. Use an anti-static wrist strap or an anti-static mat, or discharge yourself by touching a grounded metal objectbefore you touch any parts inside the system.
  7. Power supplies produce several levels of voltage. Read the information on the power supply carefully and make sure that the power supply you are using is appropriate for the application.
  8. Check all circuits and installations with the instructor before power is applied.
  9. Replace all cases or coveringsafter inspections or installations. Re-install the proper size and number of screws – if screws are missing, ask your teacher for extras.
  10. Retain all screws during a system disassembly.
  11. Electronic components should never become hot.Hot components means that there is a problem with the circuit. Disconnect any power immediately.

 



(B) Write down the functionality of each layer of TCP IP Protocol suite?

Ans: TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and application.

The first four layers provide physical standards, network interfaces, internetworking, and transport functions that correspond to the first four layers of the OSI mode

  1. Physical and Data Link Layers:

 

At the physical and data link layers, TCP/IP does not define any specific protocol. It supports all the standard and proprietary protocols. A network in a TCPIIP internetwork can be a local-area network or a wide-area network.

  1. Network Layer:

At the network layer (or, more accurately, the internetwork layer), TCP/IP supports the Internetworking Protocol. IP, in turn, uses four supporting protocols: ARP, RARP, ICMP, and IGMP.

  1. Internetworking Protocol (IP)
  2. Address Resolution Protocol
  3. Internet Control Message Protocol
  4. Internet Group Message Protocol
3. Transport Layer:

Traditionally the transport layer was represented in TCP/IP by two protocols: TCP and UDP. IP is a host-to-host protocol, meaning that it can deliver a packet from one physical device to another. UDP and TCP are transport level protocols responsible for delivery of a message from a process (running program) to another process. A new transport layer protocol, SCTP, has been devised to meet the needs of some newer applications.

  1. User Datagram Protocol
  2. Transmission Control Protocol
  3. Stream Control Transmission Protocol
  4. Application Layer:

The application layer in TCP/IP is equivalent to the combined session, presentation, and application layers in the OSI model. Many protocols are defined at this layer.

 

  1. Write down the step by step booting procedure of Linux operating system?

Ans:  Linux booting process can be divided into multiple stages

Step 1: Power Supply & SMPS

 One of the main component of a computer is SMPS(Switching Mode Power Supply). The primary objective of this component is to provide the perfect required voltage level to the motherboard and other computer components. Computer internals work in DC, however the power supply we have at home and other places are AC. SMPS converts AC to DC and maintain the required voltage level so that the computer can work flawlessly.

 Step 2: Bootstrapping

 It only contains one instruction. The instruction is to jump to another memory address location. This JUMP command, will tell the location of the BIOS program in the ROM.

Step 3: The Role of BIOS in booting process

BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System. The most important use of BIOS during the booting process is POST. POST stands for Power on Self Test. Its a series of tests conducted by the bios, which confirms the proper functioning of different hardware components attached to the computer.

A full POST check will confirm the integrity of the following devices as well.

Motherboard

Keyboard

Printer port

Hard Drive etc

Step 4: MBR and GRUB

 BIOS is programmed to look at a permanent location on the hard disk to complete its task. This location is called a Boot sector. This is nothing but the first sector of your hard disk. This area is sometimes called as MBR (Master Boot Record). This is the location that contains the program that will help our computer to load the operating system. As soon as bios finds a valid MBR, it will load the entire content of MBR to RAM, and then further execution is done by the content of MBR.

This first sector of the hard disk is only of 512 bytes. After going through some steps you can select your operating system kernal and press enter to boot it.

Step 5 Loading The kernel Image

Similar to GRUB, kernel is also loaded in stages. A linux kernel is responsible for handling Process management, Memory Management, Users, Inter process communication etc. I must say kernel is never used by a user. What the kernel does is to maintain a good environment for programs to run. Yeah we use kernel thrugh different programs.

Kernel is a compressed image file. The location of this compressed kernel image is specified in the grub 2 configuration file. Its basically an executable bzImage file.

Now you need to have a lot of drivers and modules to access underlying hardware and other stuff.

Once the kernel has started all programs in your desired run level directory. You will get a login screen to log inside your booted system.

(B)What is concept behind compressing files? what are the features of WinZip to compress files and folders?

Ans: File compression is a data compression method in which the logical size of a fileis reduced to save disk space for easier and faster transmission over a network or the Internet. It enables the creation of a version of one or more files with the same data at a size substantially smaller than the original file

 

Features of WinZip to compress files and folders

  • Unzipall major file formats
  • Zipfiles to reduce email attachment size
  • Protectfiles with banking-level encryption
  • Accessand manage files on your PC, network and clouds
  • Connectto Dropbox, Google Drive, OneDrive and many other things…

WinZip is a Windows program that lets you archive and compress files so that you can store or distribute them more efficiently. WinZip is a more capable and easier-to-use Windows equivalent of two earlier programs commonly used in the DOS operating system, PKZIP and PKUNZIP. WinZip has a simple drag-and-drop interface that allows you to view individual files in a zip file without unzipping the file. WinZip will also launch installation programs from a zip file and automatically clean up after the installation.

When creating a zip file (or archive), you can choose from five levels of compression, including “None,” for each added file. With a disk-spanning add-on, you can also create a zip file that will span multiple diskettes.

WinZip also supports other popular Internet file formats, including tar, gzip, Unix compress, Uuencode, BinHex, and MIME. ARJ, LZH, and ARC files are supported through other programs. WinZip provides an interface to most virus scanner programs and is available in 16-bit and 32-bit versions.




  1. (A) How does impact printer prints document?

Ans: Impact printer refers to a class of printers that work by banging a head or needle against an ink ribbon to make a mark on the paper. This includes dot-matrix printers, daisy-wheel printers, and line printers. In contrast, laser and ink-jet printers are nonimpact printers.The distinction is important because impact printers tend to be considerably noisier than nonimpact printers but are useful for multipart forms such as invoices. Impact Printers Physically Hit The Paper

 

Impact Printers Use Magnets

To facilitate the high-speed impacts necessary to generate an impact print, printers use a small form of electromagnet to operate their movable print heads. Impact printers feature either a combination of pins that can move toward the print surface or, as is the case with a daisy wheel printer, a wheel that can spin to access the desired character. Dot matrix and line printers work with similar technology; when the printer receives data, a logic board on the printer interprets the data and generates a series of electrical impulses. These impulses travel to the print head, where an electromagnet converts them to physical movement of a print head; the print head moves a series of pins–ranging from 9 to 24 on a dot matrix printer and 9 to 24 pins per character on a line printer–toward the paper. Each of the pins creates a small dot on the paper that, when combined with the other dots generated by the print head, forms the shape of a letter. Daisy wheel printers use similar technology, but use the electromagnets to first spin a wheel to the appropriate printable character before sending the character toward the print surface.

Impact Printers Use Ribbon

 

Except in the case of sensitive carbon paper, the impact of a printer’s pins are rarely sufficient to generate permanent, readable text on a printing surface. To augment the printing process and leave a more readily apparent mark on the paper, impact printers insert an ink-covered ribbon between the print head and the paper. When the print head touches the paper, the impact transfers a small amount of ink from the ribbon to the paper. This process helps ensure the document produced is readable for some time to come, though the ribbon itself is prone to being used up (especially in high-volume printing environments).

 

(B).  How to take backup and restore files and folders in Windows operating system?

Ans: Back up
There are several ways to back up your PC.
  1. Select the Startbutton, then select Control Panel System and Maintenance > Backup and Restore.
  2. Do one of the following:
    • If you’ve never used Windows Backup before, or recently upgraded your version of Windows, select Set up backup, and then follow the steps in the wizard.
    • If you’ve created a backup before, you can wait for your regularly scheduled backup to occur, or you can manually create a new backup by selecting Back up now.
    • If you’ve created a backup before, but want to make a new, full backup rather than updating the old one, select Create newfull backup, and then follow the steps in the wizard.
To make a system image

System images contain all of the info on your PC at a particular state

  1. Right-click the Startbutton, then select Control Panel > System and Maintenance > Backup and Restore.
  2. In the left pane, choose Create a system image, and then follow the steps in the wizard.  If you’re prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
Restore
  1. Right-click the Startbutton, then select Control Panel > System and Maintenance > Backup and Restore.
  2. Do one of the following:
    • To restore your files, choose Restore my files.
    • To restore the files of all users, choose Restore all users’ files.
  3. Do one of the following:
    • To look through the contents of the backup, select Browse for filesor Browse for folders. When you’re browsing for folders, you won’t be able to see the individual files in a folder. To view individual files, use the Browse for files
    • To search the contents of the backup, select Search, type all or part of a file name, and then select Search.

(C). How can be IP addresses configure in Windows operations system?

Ans: To set a static IP on your Windows computer:

  1. Click Start MenuControl Panel > Network and Sharing Center. (For Windows 8 and higher, search for and open Control Panel and select Network And Internet).
  2. Click Change adapter settings.

3.Right-click on Local Area Connection and click on Properties.



  1. Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)and click on Properties.
  1. Select “Use the following IP address”and enter the IP address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway. and DNS server. Click OKand close the Local Area Connection properties window.



  1. (A) Explain simplex half and full duplex mode of communication.

Ans:  Three Types of Communication Channel

1) Simplex: A simplex communication channel only sends information in one direction. For example, a radio station usually sends signals to the audience but never receives signals from them, thus a radio station is a simplex channel. It is also common to use simplex channel in fiber optic communication. One strand is used for transmitting signals and the other is for receiving signals. But this might not be obvious because the pair of fiber strands are often combined to one cable. The good part of simplex mode is that its entire bandwidth can be used during the transmission.

2) Half duplex: In half duplex mode, data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier except not at the same time. At a certain point, it is actually a simplex channel whose transmission direction can be switched. Walkie-talkie is a typical half duplex device. It has a “push-to-talk” button which can be used to turn on the transmitter but turn off the receiver. Therefore, once you push the button, you cannot hear the person you are talking to but your partner can hear you. An advantage of half-duplex is that the single track is cheaper than

3) Full duplex: A full duplex communication channel is able to transmit data in both directions on a signal carrier at the same time. It is constructed as a pair of simplex links that allows bidirectional simultaneous transmission. Take telephone as an example, people at both ends of a call can speak and be heard by each other at the same time because there are two communication paths between them. Thus, using the full duplex mode can greatly increase the efficiency of communication.

(B) What is defragmentation of hard disk? What are the advantages of it?

Ans: Defragmentation: Defragmentation” is the process of locating the non-contiguous fragments of data into which a computer file may be divided as it is stored on a hard disk, and rearranging the fragments and restoring them into fewer fragments or into the whole file. Defragmentation reduces data access time and allows storage to be used more efficiently. Some operating systems automatically  defragment  storage periodically; others require that the user occasionally use a special utility for this purpose. Windows 98 comes with a built- in defragmenter as a “system tool” that the user can run. Windows NT did not come with a defragmenter because its file system, NTFS, was designed to minimize fragmentation; however, NT users often find one necessary and several vendors provide defragmentation. Windows 2000 comes with a “light” version of the Diskeeper defragmenter; some users (especially corporate users) use A Diskeeper or some other full-function defragmentation program to manage storage efficiency and

performance. Windows XP comes with a utility called “Disk Defragmenter.”

 Advantages 

·        Disk defragmentation is the process of consolidating fragmented data on a volume,

 so it will work more efficiently.

·        It is a tool that rearranges the data, and designed to increase access speed by

 rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations.

·         Disk Defragmenter also reduces system start-up times.

·        It helps to keep the Hard Disk Drive (HDD) activity smooth and fast thus preventing

·         lags in the opening of files, programs.

·        It contributes to maintaining good speed and performance of your system.

   
   

 

(C)Write down steps of installation of Microsoft Office in Windows operating system.

Ans: 1.Insert the Microsoft Office media disc into the DVD drive. Click “Start” followed by “Computer.” Double-click the disc drive if Windows fails to launch setup automatically.

  1. Enter your product key when prompted and click “Continue.” Read the license terms and then check “I Accept the Terms of This Agreement.” Click “Continue.”
  2. Click “Customize.” Select the first program or tool from the list and then choose “Run From My Computer,” “Run All From My Computer,” “Installed on First Use” or “Not Available” from the options.

4.Repeat the previous step for each application or feature. Click “Install Now” to install Microsoft Office to the laptop.

 

  1. Write notes on any three of the following:

(A) Antivirus: Antivirus software also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.

Antivirus software was originally developed to detect and remove computer viruses, hence the name. However, with the proliferation of other kinds of malware, antivirus software started to provide protection from other computer threats. In particular, modern antivirus software can protect from: malicious browser helper objects (BHOs), browser hijackers, ransom ware, key loggers, backdoors, root kits, Trojan horses, worms, malicious LSPs, dealers, fraud tools, adware and spyware. Some products also include protection from other computer threats, such as infected and malicious URLs, spam, scam and phishing attacks, online identity (privacy), banking attacks, social engineering techniques, advanced persistent threat (APT) and botnet DDoS attacks.

(B)BIOS setup: A modern BIOS setup utility has a menu-based user interface (UI) accessed by pressing a certain key on the keyboard when the PC starts. Usually the key is advertised for short time during the early start-up, for example “Press F1 to enter CMOS setup”. The actual key depends on specific hardware. Features present in the BIOS setup utility typically include:

  • Configuring the hardware components, including setting their various operating modes and frequencies (for example, selecting how the storage controllers are visible to the operating system, or over clocking the CPU)
  • Setting the system clock
  • Enabling or disabling system components
  • Selecting which devices are potential boot devices, and in which order booting from them will be attempted
  • Setting various passwords, such as a password for securing access to the BIOS user interface functions itself and preventing malicious users from booting the system from unauthorized portable storage devices, a password for booting the system, or a hard disk drive password that limits access to it and stays assigned even if the hard disk drive is moved to another computer

(C) Networking topology: Network topology is the arrangement of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network. Network topology can be used to define or describe the arrangement of various types of telecommunication networks, including command and control radio networks, industrial field busses, and computer networks.

Network topology is the topological structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically. It is an application of graph theory wherein communicating devices are modeled as nodes and the connections between the devices are modeled as links or lines between the nodes. Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network (e.g., device location and cable installation), while logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, or signal types may differ between two different networks, yet their topologies may be identical. A network’s physical topology is a particular concern of the physical layer of the OSI model.

Examples of network topologies are found in local area networks (LAN), a common computer network installation. Any given node in the LAN has one or more physical links to other devices in the network; graphically mapping these links results in a geometric shape that can be used to describe the physical topology of the network. A wide variety of physical topologies have been used in LANs, including ring, bus, mesh and star. Conversely, mapping the data flow between the components determines the logical topology of the network. In comparison, Controller Area Networks, common in vehicles, are primarily distributed control system networks of one or more controllers interconnected with sensors and actuators over, invariably, a physical bus topology.

(D) File and printer sharing in Windows OS.

You can turn your humble Windows client computer running Windows 7 or Windows 8 into a server computer so that other computers on your network can use your printer and any folders that you decide you want to share. In effect, your computer functions as both a client and a server at the same time. A couple of examples show how:

  • It’s a clientwhen you send a print job to a network printer or when you access a file stored on another server’s hard drive.
  • It’s a serverwhen someone else sends a print job to your printer or accesses a file stored on your computer’s hard drive.

Here are the steps to enable file and printer sharing in Windows 7:

  1. Click the Start button, type Control Panel, and press Enter.

This step opens the Control Panel.

  1. Double-click the Network and Sharing Center icon and then click Change Advanced Sharing Settings.

This step opens the Advanced Sharing Settings page, which lists network settings for each network you’re connected to.

  • For a home computer running Windows 7:Two networks are listed: Home or Work, and Public.
  • In Windows 8:The Home or Work network is called Private.
  • For a computer connected to a domain network: A third network named Domain is listed.
  1. Click the down arrow next to the network you want to enable file and printer sharing for.
    • For a home computer:Click the down arrow next to Home or Work (Windows 7) or Private (Windows 8).
    • For a computer connected to a domain network: Click the down arrow next to Domain.

The figure shows the settings for a Domain network. The settings for a Home or Work network are the same.

Do not enable file or printer sharing for the Public network. Enabling file or printer sharing on a public network exposes your computer’s data to other users on the same public network.

  1. Select the Turn on File and Printer Sharing option.
  2. Click the Save Changes button.

This action saves your changes and closes the Advanced Sharing Settings page

Mr Akash

This paper has been solved by Mr Akash ( Nielit -O Student)




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