Assembly and disassembly of PC and its various parts.

  • Welcome to the course on Introduction to ICT resources.
  • Meaning of BIOS setup and CMOS setup.
  • Installation of windows XP operation and other software packages.
  • Backup and restore operations and Troubleshooting problems.
  • Assembly and disassembly of PC and its various parts.

Introduction of computer

  • We will begin with PC Assembly and Operation.
  • A computer generally means a programmable machine.
  • It transforms data into meaningful information.
  • Data can be anything like Video, Audio, Letters, Numbers etc.

What is computer

  • A computer is a device that accepts information the digitalized data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed.
  • The term computer is derived from the Latin term ‘computare’.
  • This means to calculate or programmable machine.
  • Computer cannot do anything without a Program.
  • The First mechanical computer designed by Charles Babbage was called Analytical Engine.

Computer performance

Four Functions about computer are:

Accepts data (Input),

Processes data (Processing),

Produces output (Output),

Stores results (Storage).

Main functions

  • It takes raw data as input from the user and processes under the control of set of instructions (called program).
  • Then gives the result (output).
  • Finally saves output for the future use.
  • It can process both numerical and non­numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.

Computer Classification: By Size and Power

  • Computers differ based on their data processing abilities.

Analog computer:

  • A computer that represents numbers by some continuously variable physical quantity, whose variations mimic the properties of some system being modeled.

Personal computer:

  • A personal computer is a computer small and low cost. The term “personal computer” is used to describe desktop computers (desktops).

Workstation:

  • A terminal or desktop computer in a network.
  • In this context, workstation is just a generic term for a user′s machine (client machine) in contrast to a “server” or “mainframe.”

Minicomputer:

  • A minicomputer is a Mid­sized computer that fits between microcomputers and mainframes or servers.
  • Because of the power and price of microcomputers and the power of mainframes and servers, minicomputers are no longer produced.

Mainframe:

  • Mainframe is a large central computer with more memory, storage space, and processing power than a traditional computer.
  • They are typically utilized by governmental and corporate organizations for added security as well as processing large sums of data; such as consumer statistics, census data or electronic transactions.

Supercomputer:

  • It is the biggest, fastest, and most expensive computers on earth.
  • The cheapest supercomputer costs well over $1 million.
  • They′re used for scientific simulations and research such as weather forecasting, meteorology, nuclear energy research, physics and chemistry, as well as for extremely complex animated graphics

Microcomputer:

  • Technically, a microcomputer is a computer in which the CPU is contained on one single chip, a microprocessor.
  • Your personal computer is a microcomputer.

Computer language

  • A language in which the operator “talks” to a computer.
  • Computer languages are broadly classified as
  • Low Level Language ­ assembly and machine code.
  • High Level Language ­ BASIC, C, COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal.

Peripheral device

The peripheral devices contain

  • Input Devices:
  • An input device is any hardware device that sends data to a computer, allowing you to interact with and control the computer.
  • Output Devices:
  • An output device is any peripheral that receives data from a computer, usually for display, projection, or physical reproduction.

Input device

  • Keyboard,
  • Mouse,
  • Optical/magnetic Scanner,
  • Touch Screen,
  • Microphone for voice as input,
  • Webcam,
  • Pen or Stylus.

Output device

  • Monitor (Visual Display Unit),
  • Printers,
  •  

Power Supplies

  • A power supply is an internal hardware component used to supply the components in a computer.
  • It regulates the voltage to an adequate amount.
  • It converts potentially 110­115 or 220­230 volt alternating current (AC) into a steady low­voltage direct current (DC) usable by the computer.
  • A power supply is rated by the number of watts it generates.

Switch Mode Power Supply

  • The most common type of power supply used today internally, in PCs is Switch Mode Power Supply or SMPS.
  • It control and stabilize the output voltage by switching the load current on and off.
  • These power supplies offer a greater power conversion and reduce the overall power loss.




Hard disk drive

  • A hard disk drive (HDD) is a data storage device.
  • It has the operating system installed in it to run the computer.
  • Internal hard disks reside in a drive bay and connect to the motherboard using an ATA, SCSI, or SATA cable, and are powered by a connection to the PSU (power supply unit).
  • Hard disks are measured in Gigabytes and Terabytes.

Types of Hard disk

There are three types of hard drives.

  • IDE hard Drives

 

  • IDE hard drives have 40pin IDE data connector, Jumper setting and 4pin power connector.
  • Jumper settings are to change drive option from master to slave or slave to master.

 

  • SATA Hard Drives:

 

  • SATA hard drives have 7pin power connector and 4pin data connector.
  • No jumper setting for SATA hard drives, because one SATA connector for one drive only.

 

  • SCSI Hard Drives:

 

  • SCSI hard drives have 50pin connector, 68pin connector and 80pin connectors, 4pin power connector and jumper setting.

Uses of HDD

  • The hard disk is the brain of the computer.
  • Hard drives are designed to store large amounts of digital information.
  • It Stores and retrieves data much faster than a floppy disk or CD/DVD.
  • Stored items are not lost when you switch off the computer.
  • Hard disks are Cheap on a cost compared to other storage devices

HDD components

  • Head,
  • Actuator,
  • Arm,
  • DC spindle motor,
  • Platter,
  • Printed­circuit cable,
  • Chassis,
  • Protective cover,
  • Logic circuits.

History of HDD

  • The first hard disk was introduced on September 13, 1956 by IBM.
  • The first IBM RAMAC disk drive had a couple of dozen disks, each about 2 feet in diameter.
  • IBM introduced the first hard disk drive to break the 1 GB barrier in 1980.
  • 1 st 1 TB HDD was introduced in 2007 and 2 TB in 2009.
  • A 5 MB hard disk drive from Apple cost $3,500 in 1981.
  • That′s $700,000 per GB

New HDD technologies

  • The future development of new HDD technology:

 

  • Heat­assisted magnetic recording,
  • Bit­patterned recording,
  • Shingled magnetic recording.

Types of HDD

  • There are two types of hard drives.

 

  • External hard drives,
  • Internal hard drives,

Replace of HDD by SSD

  • An SSD does much the same job functionally as an HDD, but instead of a magnetic coating on top of platters.
  • The data is stored on interconnected flash memory chips that retain the data even when there′s no power present.
  • An SSD has access speeds of 35 to 100 micro­seconds, which is nearly 100 times faster than HDD.
  • An SSD has no moving parts, which gives it advantages such as accessing stored information faster, produces no noise.
  • The SSD uses less power than a standard HDD and it is not affected by magnetism.

Laptop

  • Laptop computer is a portable and compact personal computer with the same capabilities as a desktop computer.
  • Laptop computers run off AC power or batteries.
  • It is highly suitable for mobile use.
  • A laptop may have multiple external devices and cables connected to it.
  • Laptops are usually more expensive than standard desktops.

Laptop uses

  • Laptop computers are highly portable and allow you to use your computer almost anywhere.
  • Laptop computers have a single cord to contend with, rather than the multiple cords associated with desktop computer use.
  • Education:
  • Laptops are a tremendously powerful educational tool that students and teachers should add to their inventory of existing educational tools.
  • Entertainment:
  • Most laptops have standard or optional internal CD­ROM or DVD drives, which allow the user to play CDs and DVDs anywhere.

Laptop components

  • Internal Parts:
  • CPU, RAM, Video card, HDD, BATTERY.
  • External Parts:
  • Keyboard, LCD Screen, Touchpad, AC/DC POWER Adapter.
  • Optional Parts:
  • Memory Card Reader, Speakers, A/V Port Board.

 

History of Laptop

  • In the 1970s, Alan Kay of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center had a vision for a wireless portable computer roughly the size of a notebook.
  • He called it the Dynabook.
  • In 1979, William Moggridge of Grid Systems Corporation created the first functioning portable computer.
  • In 1988, Compaq Computer introduces its first laptop PC with VGA graphics – the Compaq SLT/286

 

 

 

Laptop categories

  • 3D,
  • Ultra book,
  • Desktop Replacement,
  • Gaming,
  • Entertainment,
  • Built for the Classroom.


Major brands

  • Acer,
  • Dell,
  • Lenovo,
  • Samsung,
  • Sony

Tablet computer

  • Tablet is a small wireless mobile computing device.
  • A tablet can have Apps installed onto them to perform a function.
  • The first successful tablet is the Apple iPad, which was first released in 2010.
  • The top two operating systems used with tablets is Apple iOS used with iPads and Google Android used with Android tablets.
  • Microsoft Tablet PC allowed handwritten recognition.

Startup Process ­ Booting

  • Welcome to the session on PC Assembly and Operation.
  • We will study about Booting.
  • Booting is the process of powering on a computer and getting into the operating system.
  • During the boot process, the computer will perform a self­diagnostic and load necessary drivers and programs that help the computer and devices communicate.

 

Booting Sequence

  • The boot sequence tells the computer what devices it needs to check and load information from before loading into the operating system.
  • In the Booting Process all the Files those are Stored into the ROM Chip will also be Loaded for Running the System.
  • The boot sequence lists the bootable devices in order of priority.
  • The list can be changed by accessing the computer′s BIOS.

 

Booting sequence comprises of following steps

  • The CPU runs an instruction in memory for the BIOS.
  • That instruction contains a jump instruction that transfers to the BIOS start­up program.
  • This program runs a power­on self­test (POST).
  • Then, the BIOS finds a bootable device.
  • BIOS loads the boot sector and transfers execution to the boot sector.
  • If the boot device is a hard drive, it will be a master boot record (MBR).
  • The MBR code checks the partition table for an active partition.
  • If one is found, the MBR code loads that partition’s boot sector and executes it.
  • If the active partition’s boot sector is invalid, the MBR may load a secondary boot loader.
  • Secondary Boot loaders load Operating System.

Tasks of Booting process

  • The first part of the boot process is controlled by BIOS and begins after the POST.
  • If POST has determined that all components are functioning properly, the BIOS looks for an OS to load. Once the OS initializes, the BIOS copies its files into memory.
  • The OS loads the device drivers that it needs to control the peripheral devices.
  • Then the user can access the system’s applications.

 

Advanced Boot Options Menu

  • The Advanced Boot Options menu is a selectable list of Windows startup modes and troubleshooting tools.
  • The Advanced Boot Options menu is accessed by pressing F8 as the Windows splash screen begins to load.
  • In older versions of Windows, the equivalent menu is accessed by holding down the Ctrl key while Windows is starting.
  • By Selecting one of the options and pressing Enter will start that mode of Windows, or that diagnostic tool, etc.

 

Advanced Boot Options

  • Repair Your Computer:
  • The Repair Your Computer option starts System Recovery Options, a set of diagnostic and repair tools including Startup Repair, System Restore, Command Prompt, and more.
  • This option is available in Windows 7 by default.
  • In Windows Vista, the option is only available if System Recovery Options has been installed on the hard drive.
  • System Recovery Options isn′t available in Windows XP.

 

  • Safe Mode:
  • Starts Windows with the minimum of drivers and services possible.
  • Safe Mode with Networking:
  • Same as Safe Mode, but also includes drivers and services needed to enable the network.
  • Safe Mode with Command Prompt:
  • Same as Safe Mode, but loads the Command Prompt as the user interface.
  • In general, try Safe Mode first.
  • If that doesn′t work, try Safe Mode with Command Prompt, assuming you have command­line troubleshooting plans.
  • Try Safe Mode with Networking if you′ll need network or Internet access while in Safe Mode.
  • Enable Boot Logging:
    • The Enable Boot Logging option will keep a log of the drivers being loaded during the Windows boot process.
    • If Windows fails to start, you can reference this log and determine which driver was last successfully loaded, or first unsuccessfully loaded, giving you a starting point for your troubleshooting.

Enable low­resolution video (640×480):

  • The Enable low­resolution video (640×480) option decreases the screen resolution to 640×480, as well as lowering the refresh rate.
  • This option does not change the display driver in any way.
  • This option is most useful when the screen resolution has been changed to one that the monitor you′re using can′t support, giving you an opportunity to enter Windows at a universally accepted resolution so you can then set it to an appropriate one.
  • In Windows XP, this option is listed as Enable VGA Mode but functions exactly the same.

 

  • Last Known Good Configuration (advanced):
  • The Last Known Good Configuration (advanced) option starts Windows with the drivers and registry data that were recorded the last time Windows was successfully started and then shut down.
  • This option is a great thing to try first, before any other troubleshooting, because it returns a lot of really important configuration information back to a time when Windows worked.

 

  • Directory Services Restore Mode:
  • The Directory Services Restore Mode option repairs the directory service.
  • This options is only applicable to Active Directory domain controllers and has nouse in a normal home, nor in most small business, computer environments.

 

  • Debugging Mode:

The Debugging Mode option is an advanced diagnostic mode where data about Windows can be sent to connect “debugger.”

 

  • Disable automatic restart on system failure:
  • The Disable automatic restart on system failure option stops Windows from restarting after a serious system failure, like a Blue Screen of Death.
  • In some early versions of Windows XP, this option is not available on the Windows Advanced Options Menu.

 

  • Disable Driver Signature Enforcement:
  • The Disable Driver Signature Enforcement option allows drivers that are not digitally signed to be installed in Windows.
  • This option is not available on Windows XP′s Windows Advanced Options Menu.

 

  • Start Windows Normally:
  • In other words, this option is equivalent to allowing Windows to start as you do every day, skipping any adjustments to the Windows startup process.

 

  • Reboot:
  • The Reboot option is only available in Windows XP and does just that ­ it reboots your computer.

Advanced Boot Options Menu availability

  • The Advanced Boot Options menu is available in Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, and the Windows server operating systems released alongside those versions of Windows.
  • In earlier versions of Windows like Windows 98 and Windows 95, the Advanced Boot Options menu was called the Microsoft Windows Startup Menu and functioned similarly.

BIOS Setup

  • The BIOS (Basic Input/output System) is a chip located on all motherboards.
  • It contain instructions and setup for how the system should boot and how it operates.
  • The BIOS includes instructions on how to load basic computer hardware and includes a test referred to as a POST (Power­On Self Test) that helps verify the computer meets requirements to boot up properly.
  • If the computer does not pass the POST, it indicates by a combination of beep sound

 

The four main function of BIOS

  • POST:
  • Test the computer hardware and make sure no errors exist before loading the operating system.

 

  • Bootstrap Loader:
  • Locate the operating system.
  • If a capable operating system is located, the BIOS will pass control to it.

 

  • BIOS drivers:
  • Low level drivers that give the computer basic operational control over your computer′s hardware.

 

  • BIOS or CMOS Setup:
  • Configuration program that allows you to configure hardware settings including system settings such as computer passwords, time, and date. All disks and hard drives

 

Boot Sectors

  • All disks and hard drives are divided into small sectors.
  • The first sector is called the boot sector and contains the Master Boot Record (MBR).
  • The MBR contains the information concerning the location of partitions on the drive and reading of the bootable operating system partition.
  • During the boot up sequence on a DOS­based PC, the BIOS searches for certain system files, IO.SYS and MS­DOS.SYS.
  • When those files have been located, the BIOS then searches for the first sector on that disk or drive and loads the needed Master Boot Record information into memory.
  • The BIOS passes control to a program in the MBR which in turn loads IO.SYS.
  • This latter file is responsible for loading the remainder of the operating system.
  • There are two kinds of boot sectors ­ volume boot records and master boot records.
  • Boot sector is responsible for the further boot process of the system.
  • It has length of 512 bytes.
  • The first 446 bytes are the primary boot loader.
  • This is also referred as PBL.
  • The next 64 bytes are the partition table.
  • It has the record for each of the partitions.
  • The MBR ends with two bytes that should be 0xAA55.
  • These numbers act as validation.

 

Tasks of Boot Sectors

  • Boot sectors check the Operating system and hardware components are working properly.
  • It will ensure a computer to successfully boot and its BIOS.
  • Sometimes failure occurs among any one of these components.
  • Then it will likely result in a failed boot sequence.

 

Boot Image

  • An exact bit­for­bit copy of a computer′s OPERATING SYSTEM as it exists in memory immediately after the initial BOOT operation.
  • Such an image may not be identical to the operating system executable file stored on disk, as it will probably have had various drivers and other configuration options applied during boot up.
  • Boot images are sometimes stored on disk to speed up a lengthy start­up process.

 

Boot Sector Virus

  • A boot sector virus is one that infects the boot sector of a floppy disk or hard drive.
  • Boot sector viruses can also infect the MBR.
  • The first PC virus in the wild was Brain, a boot sector virus that exhibited stealth techniques to avoid detection.
  • Brain also changed the volume label of the disk drive.

 

 

Steps in Booting Process

  • Loading and initialization of the kernel.
  • Device detection and configuration.
  • Creation of spontaneous system processes.
  • Operator intervention (single user boot only).
  • Execution of system start­up scripts.
  • Multi­user operation.

Multi­User Operation

  • To complete boot process and allow user access.
  • init produces getty process on each workstation.
  • BSD: init has only two states ~ single­user and multi­user.
  • ATT: init has one single­user and several multi­user “run levels” to determine which system resources are enable.

 

Sample BSD Start­up Scripts: /etc/rc.boot

  • First rc script to run is /etc/rc.boot
  • The first two lines set HOME and PATH environment variables.
  • Executes basic system commands during boot.

 

  • Hostname file in /etc for each network interface.
  • Enables IP networking on each interface.
  • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP).
  • Find hostname from other machine on NW using hostconfig program and use NFS to mount filesystems.
  • System Administrator intervene to fix problem.

 

etc/rc.local

  • /etc/rc.localcontains commands for local system.
  • Portmap daemon maps RPC (remote procedure call) service numbers to the NW ports of appropriate servers.
  • NIS (NW info service) Domain Name set from /etc/default domain.
  • Set subnet mask of all machines interfaces.
  • Default route reset if no default routing daemon run.
  • List current configuration of NW interfaces on console.
  • Make machine NFS Server if file systems need to be exported.
  • Daemon to support diskless clients.
  • statd and rpc.lockdmanage advisory locks on NFS file systems.
  • Start auto mount daemon.
  • 3rd party vendor install scripts.
  • Apple talk protocol stack started.
  • Licensed software add­ons.

 

CMOS Setup and Meaning of its Various Setting

  • Welcome to the session on PC Assembly and Operation. We will study about CMOS and installing of windows OS.
  • CMOS is short for complementary metal oxide semiconductor.
  • Alternatively referred to as a Real­Time Clock (RTC), Non­Volatile RAM (NVRAM) or CMOS RAM.
  • CMOS is an on­board, battery powered semiconductor chip inside computers and it is usually powered by a CR2032 cell battery.
  • It holds some basic information, including the date and time, system configuration settings, needed to start computer by the BIOS.

History of CMOS

  • The Motorola 146818 chip was the first RTC and CMOS RAM chip to be used in early IBM computers.
  • It capable of storing a total of 64 bytes of data.
  • The system clock used 14 bytes of RAM, additional 50 bytes for storing system settings.
  • Today, most computers have moved the settings from CMOS and integrated them into the Southbridge or Super I/O chips.
  • The standard lifetime of a CMOS battery is around 10 Years. It also lies in digital cameras.

Main Functions of CMOS

  • In computer, the CMOS controls a variety of functions. The CMOS battery stores the system time and settings that must be loaded when turn the system on.
  • If the battery fails, the system settings, date, and time will not be saved when the computer is turned off until it has been replaced.
  • A few additional settings are stored by the system. The CMOS battery allows these settings to be loaded into system memory when the computer boots.
  • Sometimes the computer’s power supply fires up. Suddenly the CMOS runs a series of checks to make sure the system is functioning properly.
  • These checks contain counting up random access memory (RAM).
  • This delays boot time. Therefore some people disable this feature in the CMOS settings.
  • If installing new RAM it is better to enable the feature until the RAM has been checked. It controls the Power on Self­Test (POST).
  • Once POST has completed, CMOS runs through its other settings.
  • Hard disks and formats are detected.
  • It is checked with Redundant Array of Independent Disk (RAID) configurations.

CMOS settings

  • Many settings can be manually changed within the CMOS configuration screen to improve performance.
  • However, changes should be made by experienced users.
  • Changing settings improperly can make the system Unstable; cause crashes, or even prevent the computer from booting.

Enter the CMOS setup

  • CMOS settings control basic system information such as the system date and time, the boot sequence, computer memory, installed devices, security information and power management.
  • The boot sequence indicates the order of drives on which the computer looks for information to start the operating system
  • Security information includes passwords for accessing the computer.
  • ower­management options allow users to conserve energy by letting the computer switch to a low­power state after a specified amount of time.

How to Install Windows 7

Step 1

  • Turn ON your PC and Press ‘F2’ Continuously.
  • There will come up and option to boot through CD/DVD. Select that option.
  • Windows will start loading its files.

Step 2

  • Now you will get the Windows Setup Window.
  • This is the part to select language for your windows.
  • Select ‘English’ and click Next. Also there will be a ‘INSTALL NOW’ button.
  • Click on it and proceed to next step.

Step 3

  • There will be a license agreement.
  • Check on ‘I ACCEPT’ and proceed to Next.
  • After that there will be an option to install windows ‘UPGRADE’ and ‘CUSTOM’.
  • Right now we are installing a clean version so Click on CUSTOM.

Step 4

  • In this step you will do partitioning of your drive.
  • Be careful, this is the most important part of the Installation.
  • In this you will allocate spaces to your drive.
  • If you want to create a new drive, simply click on a drive and then click ‘NEW’.
  • A new drive will be created.

Step 5

  • When you have created the drives.
  • Simply Select the drive in which you want to install windows. Click ‘Format’, this will erase all the previous data on you that drive.
  • Click on ‘NEXT’ to proceed.

Step 6

  • Now you windows will start installing its files.
  • Grab a cup of coffee and wait for a few minutes while it install.
  • During this process don’t plug in or off your device.
  • It might cause interruption and you might loose your data and have to begin the process all over again.

 Step 7

  • Now when you files are installed.
  • Your PC will be rebooted and now you will see is a ‘User Settings’ Screen.
  • Simply add your name and password and proceed to ‘NEXT’.

Step 8

  • In this step you have to activate your windows.
  • Simply look at the back of your Windows CD/DVD cover there will be a PRODUCT KEY.
  • Add this key into your PC and Click ‘NEXT’.

 Step 9

  • Now you have Installed you windows.
  • Give the desired information the Windows Steo guide will ask, like Time Zone, Update Timing and Your Computers location.
  • There are three types of location. ‘WORK’, ‘PUBLIC’ and ‘HOME’.
  • Select on anyone of the them according to your location.
  • It only add sharing security according to your location.

 Step 10

  • Last Step – Congratulations:­ You have installed you windows.
  • Now you can seen is your desktop.
  • It is simple to use, setup your desktop and enjoy!

Installation of Other Software Packages such as MS Office

  • For example MS Office.
  • You need to
  • Download,
  • Install,
  • Upgrade and,
  • Activate

Computer Requirements

  • Operating System ­ Windows Vista | Windows XP SP2, Windows 7.
  • Memory Required ­ 512MB or higher recommended for instant search.
  • Hard Disk Required ­ 1.5 GB a portion of this disk.
  • If original download package is removed from hard drive spaces will be freed after installation.
  • Minimum Processor Speed ­ 500 MHz processor or higher.
  • Display ­ 1024×768 or higher resolution monitor.

Installation process

  • Visit the Office Setup page.
  • Open office.com/setup in your web browser.
  • Enter your Office product key:
  • This can be found on the card that came with your retail purchase or in your confirmation email or Microsoft Account page if you purchased online.
  • Sign in with your Microsoft Account.
  • If you don′t have one, you can create one for free.
  • Click the “Install” button:
  • The Office installer will be downloaded to your computer.

Click Run to start the installation.

  • Follow the prompts in the installer:
  • You can click Next to move through the installer.
  • You will be given the choice of themes, and a chance to take a quick tour.
  • Stay online while Office installs:
  • Office will perform most of the downloading and installation in the background.
  • Finish the installation:
  • Click All done! to close the installer.

Operation of Printers

What is printers ?

  • Welcome to the session on PC assembly and operation.
  • In this session we will learn about Operation of printers.
  • Printer is an external hardware device for taking computer data out.
  • It produces a hard copy of that data.
  • Printers are most commonly used peripheral machines.
  • It prints out text also gives us still images on the paper.

Operation of Printers

  • A printer is a piece of hardware for a computer.
  • It is a device that must be connected to a computer which allows a user to print items on paper, such as letters and pictures.
  • It can also work with digital cameras to print directly without the use of a computer. An operation that controls the printing or display of information.

Example

How Inkjet Printer works?

  • Print head has four ink cartridges that have moving function.
  • Software gives directions to where to apply dots of ink.
  • It also directs which color and what quantity to use.
  • Electrical pulses are sent to the resistors behind each nozzle.
  • Vapor bubbles of ink are formed by resistors.
  • The ink is forced to the paper through nozzles.
  • How Laser printer Works? Paper is fed and the drum rotates.
  • A laser beam conveys information from the computer to a rotating mirror.
  • And thus an image is created on the drum.
  • The charges on the drum are ionized and the toner sticks to the drum.
  • Toner is transferred from drum to paper.

Installation of Printer Drive

  • In most cases, installing and using a printer in Windows 7 is nearly effortless. Just plugging the printer into your computer is usually enough.
  • Installation and setup is automatic and silent.

Installing a printer

  • Connect the printer to a USB port on your computer.
  • Turn on the printer.
  • Let Windows 7 automatically detect and install the device.
  • Your computer will search its driver cache and may search the Windows Update site.
  • If Windows 7 displays an alert notifying you that it is installing the device driver software, click the alert.
  • Clicking the alert opens the Driver Software Installation window displaying information about the drivers Windows is installing.
  • After Windows announces that the printer is ready to use, close the Driver Software Installation window. The printer is detected.
  • After the driver is installed, the printer is ready to use.

Installing a printer

  • Connect the printer to a USB port on your computer.
  • Turn on the printer.
  • Let Windows 7 automatically detect and install the device.
  • Your computer will search its driver cache and may search the Windows Update site.
  • If Windows 7 displays an alert notifying you that it is installing the device driver software, click the alert.
  • Clicking the alert opens the Driver Software Installation window displaying information about the drivers Windows is installing.
  • After Windows announces that the printer is ready to use, close the Driver Software Installation window. The printer is detected.
  • After the driver is installed, the printer is ready to use.

Installing a Local printer

  • Click the Start button on the taskbar and then click Devices and Printers.
  • Click the Add a Printer button on the Devices and Printers window toolbar to start the Add Printer Wizard, make sure that the Add Local Printer option is selected, and then click Next.
  • Select the port for the printer to use in the Use an Existing Port drop­ down list in the Select a Printer Port dialog box and then click Next.
  • Click the manufacturer and the model of the printer in the Manufacturers and Printers list boxes, respectively, of the Install Printer Driver dialog box.
  • If you have a disk with the software for the printer, put it into your CD­ROM/DVD drive and then click the Have Disk button.
  • Select the drive that contains this disk in the Copy Manufacturer′s Files From drop­down list and then click OK. If you don′t have the disk, click the Windows Update button.
  • Click the Next button to advance to the Type a Printer Name dialog box.
  • By default, the printer will be named using its full model name.
  • You can change or shorten this if you wish. Then, click Next. By default, the printer will be shared on your network.
  • If you do not want to share the printer, click Do Not Share This Printer.
  • Then, click Next. If you want this printer to be your default (primary) printer, click Set As the Default Printer.

To print a test page from your newly installed printer, click the Print a Test Page button in the Add a Printer dialog box before you click the Finish button to finish installing the new printer

Installing a Network printer

  • To use the Add Printer Wizard to install a printer that′s available through your local area network, follow these (slightly different) steps:
  • Click the Start button on the taskbar and then click Devices and Printers.
  • Click Add a Printer.
  • Click Add a Network, Wireless, or Bluetooth printer.
  • After Windows is finished Searching for Network Printers list, select a printer and then click Next.
  • In the Ready to Install Printer dialog box, edit the name for the printer in the Printer Name text box if you want before you click Next.
  • To print a test page from the newly installed printer, click the Print a Test Page button in the Add a Printer dialog box before you click the Finish button to finish installing the new printer.

Backup and Restore operations

Set the Backup

  • To set up a backup in Windows 7 open up Computer right­click on your local drive and select Properties.
  • Then click on the Tools tab and click the Back up now button.
  • In the Back up or restore your files window click the link to set up a backup.
  • Windows will search for a suitable drive to store the backup or you can also choose a location on your network.
  • If you backup to a network location you might need the password to the share.
  • You can have Windows choose what to backup or you can choose the files and directories
  • Because I like more user control for this tutorial I am choosing what to backup but it′s completely up to you.
  • Note: If you let Windows choose it will not backup Program Files, anything formatted with the FAT file system, files in the Recycle Bin, or any temp files that are 1GB or more.
  • Select the files and folder to include in the backup.
  • Also notice you can select the option to create an image of your local drive.
  • Now review the backup job and make sure everything looks correct.
  • Here you can also schedule the days and times the backup occurs.
  • Save the backup settings and kick off your first backup and while it runs you can monitor the progress.
  • Click the View Details button to see exactly what is being backup during the process.
  • When the backup is complete you will see the two backup files and image folder if you created one.
  • I backed up 20GB of data and it took around 15 minutes including the system image which came to 11GB.
  • Double click on the backup file and can restore files or manage the size of the backups folder.

Restore Files from Backup

  • If you need to go back and restore a file from a backup click on Restore my files in the Backup and Restore Center.
  • Now you can browse or search the most recent backup for a file or folder your missing.
  • Next you can restore them back to the original location or choose a different spot then click restore
  • Progress of the restoration will vary depending on the size of the data and location it′s restoring

Manage Backup Size

  • Sometimes you may need to recover some disk space and Windows 7 allows you to manage the size of your backups.
  • In the Backup and Restore section click on the Manage Space link.
  • Your given a summary of the backup location and what is taking up space from the backup.
  • Click on the View backups button to check the different dated backups where you can delete older ones if needed.
  • You can also change how windows retains older system images.
  • Backing up data is one of the most important but overlooked tasks for a computer user.
  • If you have another backup app you might not consider letting Windows do it, but overall, the new backup and restore utility in Windows 7 is much better than previous versions.

Trouble Shooting PC Problems

Trouble shooting Tools

  • Bootable rescue disk,
  • Ground bracelet and/or ground mat,
  • Flat­head screwdriver,
  • Phillips­head or cross­head screwdriver,
  • Torx screwdriver,
  • Tweezers,
  • Chip extractor,
  •  

Convenient Troubleshooting Tools

  • Multi meter,
  • Needle­nose pliers,
  • Flashlight,
  • AC outlet ground tester,
  • Small cups or bags,
  • Antistatic bags,
  • Pen and paper,
  • Diagnostic cards and diagnostic software,
  • Utility software,
  • Virus detection software on disks.

Diagnostic Cards

  • Designed to identify and report computer errors and conflicts at POST.
  • Examples
  • POSTcardV3 (Unicore Software),
  • Post Code Master (MSD, Inc.),
  • POST mortem Diagnostics Card.

Diagnostic Software

  • It is utilized for identifying hardware problems.
  • Examples
  • PC­Technician (Windsor Technologies, Inc.),
  • PC­Diagnosis (Windsor Technologies, Inc.).

Virus Detection Software

  • An antivirus program is a software utility designed to protect the computer or network against computer viruses.
  • It informs you the presence of a virus and asks permission before deleting it.
  • If a virus infected, it may delete files, prevent access to files, send spam, spy on you, or perform other malicious actions.
  • High­quality antivirus product with excellent scanning and removal ability.
  • Examples
  • McAfee Virus Scan (SCAN).
  • Norton Antivirus (NAV).

Reducing the Threats

  • Write­protect original software disks and backup copies.
  • Boot from your hard disk or a write­protected disk only.
  • Avoid downloading from the Internet or a bulletin board.
  • Always use a virus scan program.
  • Use a scan utility on a regular basis.

When Computer Does Not Recognize?

  • Check CMOS settings.
  • Run diagnostic software to test memory.
  • Are SIMM or DIMM modules properly seated?
  • Look for bent pins or chips installed the wrong way on cache memory.
  • Are individual chips hotter than others?
  • Make sure SIMMs have correct or consistent part numbers
  • Replace memory modules one at a time.
  • Check sockets and traces.

Monitor Problems

  • Power light (LED) does not go on, no picture.
  • Power LED light is on, no picture on power­up.
  • Power on, but monitor displays wrong characters.
  • Monitor flickers and/or has wavy lines.

Trouble shooting Laser Printer Problems

  • Is the printer turned on and online?
  • Is the correct printer selected as the default?
  • Can applications software program other than the current program?
  • Is the printer using the correct driver?
  • Does the driver need updating? Is the driver correctly installed?
  • Can you move the printer to another computer and print from it?

Trouble shooting the OS & HD

  • Try a hard boot.
  • Use the Windows 9x Start­up Menu.
  • Can you boot from an A prompt when booting from a floppy?
  • If yes, the problem is in the hard drive subsystem and the software on the drive.
  • Can you access the hard drive from the A prompt?
  • If yes, the problem is in the software used on the hard drive to boot. Run diagnostic software.

 

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