1. The ________________ is a collection of two or more computers.
b) Computer network
d) All the above
2. The central cable is the backbone of this network and is known as_____________.
d) None of the above
3. A tree topology connects multiple star networks to other______________.
a) Star networks
b) Bus topology
c) Ring topology
d) Mesh topology
4. Wide Area Network (WAN) spans over a ______________ such as a state or a
a) Small geographical area
b) Large geographical area
c) Medium area network
d) As user wish
5. The word modem is derived from its function ___________.
d) All the above
1. Transmission media not interconnect the computers in a network.
2. Each computer on a Local Area Network (LAN) is called a node.
3. Modem also re-converts the analog signals into digital signals.
Web Browsing Software
• A Web browser is a software application used for presenting and traversing the
information on World Wide Web, including Web Pages, images, video and other
necessary files (or) data required by users.
• Web Browser is not hardware, it is software.
• A web browser is a client side software program which communicates with
web servers on the internet and request information wanted by users. It also
enables uploading and downloading of files.
• The web address of a particular object published on the web is known as URL
(Uniform Resource Locator). Each object in the web is identified or searched with
the help of URL.
Popular Web Browsing Software
• The most popular web browsers access the globe:
Microsoft Internet Explorer
• Initially internet explorer was called MicroSoft Internet Explorer (MSIE).
FIG 6.2: Internet Explorer Icon
• Internet Explorer is a series of graphical-based Web browsers and in those
times the dominant browser in use with control of over 90 percent of the market.
• It is a web browser developed by Microsoft in 1995.
• The programming language used to develop this browser is C++.
• The Google Chrome browser combines a minimal design with sophisticated
technology to make the Web faster, safer and easier.
• Google Chrome is freeware web browser, i.e. it is free of cost, but its source
code is not available.
• The Google Chrome was first introduced in September 2008 by Google Inc.
• The programming language used to develop Google Chrome is: C, C++, java,
• Firefox is a free, open source web browser, i.e. its source code is available for
everyone and it can be modified by the users.
• It was developed by Mozilla Corporation and it uses the Gecko layout engine to
render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards.
• Its first version was released on November 9, 2004.
• Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc.
• Safari has been designed and classified based on the most useful browser which
“gets out of your way and lets you simply enjoy the Web“.
• The heart of Apple’s Safari browser is the Web Kit engine, which is responsible
determining page layout and it is a free wave web browser.
• The programming language used to develop Apple Safari is C++, objective C.
• Apple Safari is a Web browser available for the Macintosh and Windows
operating systems as well as the iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad
• Opera is a web browser developed by opera software and it uses the blink layout engine.
• Opera is very high speed and most standard-compliant of the current browsers in use.
• Opera supports standards such as 128-bit encryption, SSL2 and 3 for security,
• The programming language used to develop this browser is C++.
Functions of Web Browser
• The web browser gets URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of the site and
understands the web address of DNS (Domain Name Server) hyperlinks.
• It identifies the web page and formats the web documents to display on the
• The Web browser helps users to have a history and go back & forward through pages that have already visited.
• The web browser makes possible to copy text from the web page and paste it
into a word processing program (or) as desired by users.
• Web browser helps to print the web documents/pages.
• The web browser makes possible to transfer online documents to user’s
computer called downloading.
• The web browser allows user to send and receive e-mails, through web mail.
To Configure a Web Browser:
• Configuring Internet Explorer to default settings
Open the Internet Explorer and click the Explorer menu.
Then select the Internet options menu. Internet options dialog box gets
Then select the Advanced tab from internet options dialog box.
Click the Reset button.
Check the Delete personal settings option and then click the Reset button
from reset internet settings dialog box.
Finally click the Close button.
• The search engine is a web program that enables the users to enter words and
phrases to search, and scan the vast information on the web to locate sites that
matches the words or phrase.
• A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for
information on the World Wide Web.
• The User can locate useful or interesting web sites by using a search engine.
• This is an organization with a web site containing a huge database of web site
• Search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a
• When a query is typed in form of subject or a name that describes what user are
seeking, and the search engine provides with a list or selection of web site
addresses that fit the enquiry.
• The User can then simply click on an address to jump to that website.
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
• Search Engine Optimization is the process of increasing the visibility of a website
or a web page in a search engine’s natural search results.
• It the process of optimizing the web page contents to increase its relevance to
specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search
• SEO makes the website more efficient and visible top its users during the search.
List of Search Engine
• Ask Jeeves.
• Duck Duck Go.
• Web browser is the software, which helps user to access web pages from
• Internet Explorer comes by default along with the Microsoft Windows operating
system and other browsers can be downloaded freely from their relevant
• The various web browsers are listed.
Toolbars of Web Browser
• Back — Returns to the previous page.
• Forward — Returns to the page that the user has backed up from.
• Home — Takes to the start page specified in the browser preference.
• Reload or Refresh — Downloads or revisit the web page from the server again.
• Stop — Stops the browser from loading the current page.
• Print — User can make a hard copy of the current page displayed in the browser.
Starting a web browser
• Open the web browser by double-clicking on the icon on the desktop or right clicking the icon and choose “Open“.
• Any of these search engines can be loaded in the browser to search for specific
information from World Wide Web.
• Search is simple, just type any query in the search box and press Enter or click
the Search button and search engines will search the web server for
content that is relevant to the keyword given by the user.
• The following tips can help user to make the most of the searches.
If user type the words [India and America] will give different results than when
they type only [India] or only [America].
Every word, typed as ‘search keyword’ will be parsed and processed.
Generally, all the words user put in the query are used by the search engines.
Search is always not case sensitive. E.g. [A search for (Delhi CAPITAL of
India) is the same as a search for (Delhi capital of India)].
Generally, punctuation symbols are ignored, such as @, #, $, %, ^, &, *, (,), =,
+, [,], \, to make sure that a search engine returns relevant results.
Using Favorites Folder
• The address of the favorite websites can be stored in a folder so that user can
later on retrieve that address from favorite Folder.
• For e.g. In Internet Explorer do the following,
Click on the Menu bar -> Favorite -> Add to favorites.
Add a Favorite window will be displayed. To create a new folder to store the
website then click New Folder. Or click add to store in default storage
It will navigate to Create a Folder in that first; enter the desired name for this
new sub-folder in the field labeled Folder Name.
Downloading Web pages
• When a web page is accessed for instance, document and all its associated
graphics gets downloaded from a web server to our system, and then it will get
displayed in web browser.
• To download files use right mouse button to select Save As from the pop-up box